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Mitochondria have been implicated as key factors regulating female reproductive processes. Notable progress has been made in determining the role of mitochondria with respect to oocyte maturation, fertilization and early embryo development.

In addition, mitochondrial function and dysfunction has been the subject of various studies in ovarian aging and  stress models.  The mitochondrial DNA content of granuloma, cumulus and trophectoderm cells is being explored as a biomarker of oocyte quality and embryo viability.

As growing evidence suggests that embryo potential could be related to the ability of oocyte mitochondria to generate energy. Efforts with assisted-reproductive technology for improving mitochondrial capacity in women with poor outcomes s. Acupuncture and mitochondrial supplement therapeutic attempts have focused mainly on using nutrients to restore mitochondrial function, and transferring mitochondria from autologous gremlin precursor cells.

Moreover, new perspectives on optimizing infertility treatments have arisen with modern mitochondrial replacement therapies, which are being applied in women with mitochondrial disease-causing mutations.  

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